Instant messaging relates to person-to-person communication tools optimized for short chat-like exchanges. Clinical Secure Messaging (CSM) adds encryption and user-validation protections for secure transmission of clinical information. While CSM can be a big help within organizations, perhaps the greatest appeal is for quick, secure, communications between clinicians in different contexts. Growing frustration with facsimile technology increases demand for Internet-based services. However, messaging-type applications are relatively new to medicine and users may not appreciate the harms that could befall patients and practitioners. AHS is working on guides that expose risks and requirements when CSM is used for healthcare (see links).